Q. What are the different types of stones?February 12th, 2016
There are four main categories of which stones are identified: SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC, IGNEOUS STONE, and MAN-MADE (Quartz).
SEDIMENTARY rocks are formed from sediments that have settled at the bottom of a lake, sea or ocean, and have been pressurised over millions of years. The sediment comes from eroded rocks carried there by rivers or ice. Also from fossils of sea creatures.
LIMESTONE: composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of the mineral calcite. Varies in colours and most limestones are in Matte/Honed finish as it cannot be polished. Most common colours are Beige, Brown and Grey colour. FOSSILSTONE: Considered a limestone that contains natural fossils such as sea shells and plants.
SANDSTONE: is composed of sand-sized grains of mineral. It also contains a clay cementing material which bonds the sand grains together. Usually formed in light brown, yellow or red colours.
FOSSILSTONE: Considered a limestone that contains natural fossils such as sea shells and plants.
TRAVERTINE: Key characteristics of Travertine stone are the holes within the stone which are caused by carbon dioxide evasion. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, tan, cream-colored, and even rusty varieties. It is formed by a process of rapid precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at the mouth of a hot spring or in a limestone cave. In the latter, it can form stalactites, stalagmites, and other speleothems. It is frequently used in Italy and elsewhere as a building material. Travertine is a terrestrial sedimentary rock, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from solution in ground and surface waters, and/or geothermally heated hot-springs. Similar (but softer and extremely porous) deposits formed from ambient-temperature water are known as tufa.  wikipedia
METAMORPHIC stone is a result of a transformation of pre-existing rock which was subject to extreme heat and pressure. These physical and/or chemical changes may be a development of a crystalline formation, a texture change, and/or a colour change.
MARBLE: is metamorphosed limestone which is softened from heat and pressure and recrystallize into marble where a form of mineral change has occurred, composed of fairly pure calcite (a crystalline form of calcium carbonate, CaCO3). It is extensively used for bathroom floors and cladding but its uses are endless. Marble can be sourced in many different colours but is usually veined.
SLATE: A fine grained metamorphic stone that by intense heat and pressure. Usually black, grey, or green. Used commonly in fireplaces and fire earths due to its heat resistant properties.
IGNEOUS stones are mainly formed when the earth melts the rock. Molten, or liquid, rock forms (known as magma) which is then cooled and solidified naturally. This type of rock is known as igneous or as known in Latin, ignis meaning fire. Mineral gases and liquids penetrated into the stone and creating new crystalline formations with various colours.
GRANITE: is a very hard, granular, crystalline consisting of Quartz and Feldspar with small amounts of mica, amphiboles and other minerals. All granite has what is called coarse-grained texture, meaning that the individual mineral grains are visible to the naked eye. Granite is favoured in many kitchen worktops/surfaces but is also heavily used in flooring and cladding.
MANMADE QUARTZ or also known as Engineered Quartz, is mostly made of 90-95% natural ground quartz and 5-10% of resins, pigments and colouring. These are all combined and engineered into durable and non-pourus slabs. The strength of engineered quartz makes it naturally resistant to abrasion, scratches, dents, and even acids without the need for sealants. One of the appealing features of engineered quartz is the fact it has such a wide variety of colours, patterns and textures. The engineered stone industry is forever expanding and developing new ways and methods of creating more ‘natural like’ designs.